- This is intended as an introduction to patch clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes. It covers vitelline membrane removal.
- PH 7.0). Two techniques of oocyte preparation were compared. In the first technique (I), standard methods were followed to prepare the oocytes for patch-clamping [5, 7].
- Why Xenopus oocytes and why voltage-clamp recordings? Both macropatch and single channel patches can be made from any of the standard patch clamp orientations, including cell-attached, inside-out, or outside-out patches. OpusXpress: an example of High-Throughput Electrophysiology optimized for oocytes. OpusXpress is a high-throughput electrophysiology system in which voltage control, data acquisition.
To summarize, the mRNA of BK channels is injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes to express channel proteins on the oocyte membrane; patch clamp techniques are used to record currents flowing through the channels under controlled voltage and intracellular solutions. Click here to view. (62M, mov). Methfessel C. Patch clamp measurements on Xenopus laevis oocytes: currents through endogenous channels and implanted acetylcholine receptor and sodium channels. Pflügers Arch. 1986; 407:577–588.
Xenopus oocytes serve as a standard heterologous expression system for the study of cloned ion channels. The large size of these cells allows for relatively easy expression and recording of activity of exogenous ion channels (together with neurotransmitter receptors and/or various regulatory proteins) using the whole‐cell two‐electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) technique, as well as standard single‐channel patch clamp recordings. Official Full-Text Publication: Improved preparation of Xenopus oocytes for patch-clamp recording on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.
Patch Clamp and Perfusion Techniques for Studying Ion Channels Expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Ionic current of BK channels is recorded using patch clamp techniques. BK channels are expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting messenger RNA. The intracellular solution during patch clamp recordings is controlled by a perfusion system.
Date Published: 1/1. Issue 4. 7; doi: 1. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Issue 4. Xenopus oocyte, m. RNA, transcription. Yang, J., Delaloye, K., Lee, U.
S., Cui, J. Patch Clamp and Perfusion Techniques for Studying Ion Channels Expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J. Vis. Exp. (4. 7), e. The protocol presented here is designed to study the activation of the large conductance, voltage- and Ca.
K+ (BK) channels. The protocol may also be used to study the structure- function relationship for other ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. BK channels are widely expressed in different tissues and have been implicated in many physiological functions, including regulation of smooth muscle contraction, frequency tuning of inner hair cells and regulation of neurotransmitter release.
BK channels are activated by membrane depolarization and by intracellular Ca. Mg. 2+6- 9. Therefore, the protocol is designed to control both the membrane voltage and the intracellular solution In this protocol, messenger RNA of BK channels is injected into Xenopus laevis. Drosophila melanogaster Embryo and Larva Harvesting and Preparation" href="/science- education/5. Drosophila melanogaster Embryo and Larva Harvesting and Preparation, a Jo. VE Science Education video explaining more about about the context of oocytes"> oocytes (stage V- VI) followed by 2- 5 days of incubation at 1. C1. 0- 1. 3. Membrane patches that contain single or multiple BK channels are excised with the inside- out configuration using patch clamp techniques.
The intracellular side of the patch is perfused with desired solutions during recording so that the channel activation under different conditions can be examined. To summarize, the m. RNA of BK channels is injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes to express channel proteins on the Drosophila melanogaster Embryo and Larva Harvesting and Preparation" href="/science- education/5. Drosophila melanogaster Embryo and Larva Harvesting and Preparation, a Jo. VE Science Education video explaining more about about the context of oocyte"> oocyte membrane; patch clamp techniques are used to record currents flowing through the channels under controlled voltage and intracellular solutions. Injection of m. RNA into Oocytes.
Inject 0. 0. 5 - 5. RNA that was transcribed in vitro into Xenopus laevis oocytes (stage V- VI) using Nanoject II Auto- Nanoliter Injector (Drummond Scientific Company, model 3- 0. Repeat the injection on a dozen oocytes for each m. RNA. Rinse the injected oocytes twice using ND- 9. M sodium chloride (Na. Cl, Mr 5. 8. 4. 4 g/mol), 2 m.
M potassium chloride (KCl, Mr 7. M calcium chloride (Ca. Cl. 2•2. H2. O, Mr 1.
M magnesium chloride (Mg. Cl. 2•6. H2. O, Mr 2. M 4- (2- hydroxyethyl)- 1- piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES, Mr 2. M sodium pyruvate (Mr 1. Penicillin- Streptomycin. H 7. 6), then place them in a culture plate and incubate at 1.
C for 2+ days. 2. Preparing the Perfusion System. Illustration of the Automate Valve.
Link 1. 6 perfusion system. The perfusion system uses pressurized nitrogen to push perfusion solutions out of the solution reservoirs, through the perfusion tubings, and to the perfusion pencil and tip. The flow of each stream of perfusion solution is controlled by one reservoir valve and one electronic valve. In this protocol, one of the reservoirs is not pressurized and functions as a waste collector as well as a pressure- release mechanism.
Picture adapted from vendor's website http: //www. Connect the tubings to the perfusion pencil. Turn on the electronic valve controller and open the electronic valves. To assure that the tubings and the perfusion pencil are free of clog and air bubbles, push deionized (DI) water through each tubing using a syringe filled with deionized water. Connect the tubings to the solution reservoirs and open the valve of gas cylinder to apply pressurized nitrogen.
Open the reservoir valve to fill the tubing with reservoir solution. Flick the reservoir valve to remove bubbles in the solution if needed. Close the valve after the tubing is filled with solution. Fill the perfusion tip with water and screw it onto the perfusion pencil.
Be careful not to trap any bubbles when connecting the tip. Fix the perfusion pencil to the bath stage using modeling clay. Make sure the perfusion tip is in the bath space.
The perfusion system is now set up. Add DI water in the bath. Make sure the perfusion tip is submerged in the water. Test that each perfusion solution comes out of the perfusion tip correctly. Close the electronic valve connected to the tubing of waste collector and open the valve for one perfusion solution at a time (1. M potassium hydroxide (KOH, Mr 5. M 4- (2- hydroxyethyl)- 1- piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES, Mr 2.
M potassium chloride (KCl, Mr 7. M Ethylene glycol- bis(2- aminoethylether)- N,N,N′,N′- tetraacetic acid (EGTA, Mr 3. H is adjusted to 7. Me. SO3, Mr 9. 6.
Ca. 2+ or Mg. 2+ is added to desired concentration when needed). Under the microscope, observe the jet of perfusion fluid coming out of the perfusion tip. Close the valve for perfusion solution and open the valve for the waste collector.
The perfusion jet should almost disappear. Repeat the same test for all the perfusion solutions.
When you have verified that all the perfusion solutions flow correctly, replace DI water in the bath with bath solution (1. M potassium hydroxide (KOH, Mr 5. M 4- (2- hydroxyethyl)- 1- piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES, Mr 2. M potassium chloride (KCl, Mr 7. H is adjusted to 7. Me. SO3, Mr 9. 6.
Patch Clamping. Recoat the Ag recording electrode with Ag. Cl before each patch clamping session. First, remove the electrode wire from the pipette holder and submerge the tip half of the electrode wire in a vial containing fresh bleach for at least 1. This deposits a layer of Ag. Cl on the wire. Rinse the electrode wire with deionized water and blot dry. Then install the Ag/Ag. Cl electrode back in the pipette holder.
Connect the bath (reference) electrode to the headstage and place it in the bath. This prepares the electrodes for recording. Now prepare for data acquisition. Turn on your computer and plug the hardware key into the printer port of your computer. The hardware key must be plugged for you to use the data acquisition software, which is HEKA pulse.
Switch on the amplifier (Axon Instruments, AXOPATCH 2. B) and start HEKA Pulse. Load the protocol file and adjust the configuration settings, such as the Stimulus Scale. The goal for adjusting the configuration settings is to assure that the test potential is exactly equal to the command potential. This prepares the data acquisition equipment. Prepare oocytes. Submerge the oocyte in stripping solution (2. M N- Methyl- D- glucamine (NMG, Mr 1.
M Aspartate (no K+) (Mr 1. M potassium chloride (KCl, Mr 7. M Ethylene glycol- bis(2- aminoethylether)- N,N,N′,N′- tetraacetic acid (EGTA, Mr 3. M magnesium chloride (Mg. Cl. 2•6. H2. O, Mr 2. M 4- (2- hydroxyethyl)- 1- piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES, Mr 2. H is adjusted to 7.
Na. OH, Mr 4. 0. 0 g/mol) for 5 - 1. The stripping solution detaches the vitelline membrane from the plasma membrane which makes it possible to strip the vitelline membrane.
Gently strip the vitelline membrane from the oocyte using two pairs of forceps. A devitellinized oocyte is extremely fragile and therefore should be moved as little as necessary. Taking care to prevent exposing the devitellinized oocyte to air or bubbles, use a glass pipette filled with enough solution to transfer the oocyte to the bath. This prepares the oocyte for recording. Prepare patch pipettes Pull the glass pipettes after inserting a glass capillary tube (VWR International, Cat # 5. Sutter P- 9. 7 Flaming/Brown Micropipette Puller. Observe the pipettes under microscope to determine the tip shape and opening diameter.
The opening diameter should be 2- 4 micrometers. To reduce capacitive current during recording and to ensure a smooth tip, coat the tip with wax and then fire- polish it. Fill the pipette tip by placing the tip of the pipette inside the pipette solution (1.
M potassium hydroxide (KOH, Mr 5. M 4- (2- hydroxyethyl)- 1- piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES, Mr 2. M potassium chloride (KCl, Mr 7. M magnesium chloride (Mg. Cl. 2•6. H2. O, Mr 2. H is adjusted to 7. Me. SO3, Mr 9. 6.
This wets the tip. Fill pipette 1/3 full with pipette solution using a syringe and place the pipette in the pipette holder with the Ag/Ag. Cl electrode inside and contacting with the pipette solution. This prepares the patch pipette. To excise an inside- out patch from the prepared oocyte, find the clear edge of oocyte under microscope. Move the patch pipette close to the oocyte using manipulator.
Record the serial resistance of pipette. The ideal series resistance of the patch pipette is between 1- 1. MΩ when filled with pipette solution and submerged in bath solution. Slowly push the pipette against the oocyte until the resistance approximately doubles. Apply gentle suction to the membrane by mouth through a suction tube which is connected to the pipette holder until a giga- ohm seal is obtained.
Stabilize the patch by holding it at voltage - 3. V for a couple of minutes. To obtain an inside- out patch, excise the patch by quickly pushing the pipette further into the oocyte and then gently pulling it out. The inside- out patch is now ready for clamping.
Move the pipette holding the inside- out patch to about 1. Close the electronic valve for waste collecting and open the reservoir valve for the desired perfusion solution. Begin recording currents across the patch.
Change the voltage and perfusion solutions as desired. When you are finished recording, clean the perfusion tubings, pencil and tip by pushing through deionized water to avoid clogs.